Most crimes committed by service members against local civilians are committed outside the service, [citation required] and are considered to be under local jurisdiction in accordance with the respective SOFA. Details about SOFAs can still cause problems. In Japan, for example, SOFA provides that service members are transferred to local authorities only when they are charged in court.  In a number of cases, local officials complained that this hindered their ability to interview suspects and investigate the crime. U.S. officials say Japanese police are using forced interrogation tactics and are working harder to get a high conviction rate than finding “justice.” The U.S. authorities also note the differences in the investigative powers of the police and the judiciary. No lawyer may be present at the investigative interviews in Japan, although a translator is available, and no equivalent to Miranda`s rights in the United States is mentioned. Another problem is the lack of jury trials in Japan, before 2009, all trials were decided by a judge or jury.
Currently, Japan uses a system of lay judges in certain criminal proceedings. For these reasons, the US authorities insist that members of the service be brought to justice in military courts and oppose Article 98 of the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court.  A sofa, as requested under Article VI of the Treaty, was concluded in 1960 in the form of a separate agreement and at the same time as the treaty.84 SOFA deals with the use of facilities by US forces and the status of US forces in Japan. The agreement has been amended at least four times since the original agreement.85 In 1941, the United States entered into an agreement with the United Kingdom on the leasing of naval and air bases in Newfoundland, Bermuda, Jamaica, St. Lucia, Antigua, Trinidad and British Guyana.146 The agreement not only described the rented physical location, but also provided for the status of U.S. personnel in the location. The rental contract was certainly not a self-contained sofa, but it served the purpose of a SOFA on the sites listed. In the 1950s, 1960s and 1970s, the United States and the United Kingdom entered into other leases that contain provisions for the protection of status in rental premises.
On May 23, 2005, President Hamid Karzai and President Bush issued a “joint statement” in which they presented a future agreement between the two countries.60 It provides that the U.S. military in Afghanistan “must organize, train, equip and support the Afghan security forces” until Afghanistan has developed its own capabilities and “advise on the adoption of appropriate measures in the event that Afghanistan perceives its territorial integrity. Independence or security is threatened or threatened. The statement does not mention the status of U.S. forces in Afghanistan, but if an agreement is reached in accordance with the declaration, an agreement on the status of the armed forces can be expected to be reached. In August 2008, shortly after the US airstrikes apparently resulted in civilian casualties, President Karzai called for a review of the presence of all foreign forces in Afghanistan and the conclusion of formal SOFS with the countries concerned.61 However, it does not appear clear that the parties have begun formal negotiations that could lead to an updated sofa.